In 1983, cognitive psychologist Howard Gardner challenged the popular belief of intelligence being a single, mono-dimensional trait. He posited that intelligence, typically measured by IQ tests, accounted for a limited band of the spectrum of human ability. He argued that there was much more to intelligence than the tests were expressing.
Gardner claimed that there was not only one way to be smart, but rather, many ways—eight in total. He labeled these abilities “Multiple Intelligences”.
Educator Steven Rudolph has expanded the list to 10 traits. These include:
1. Gross Bodily Intelligence - the ability to use and control one’s body.
2. Fine Bodily Intelligence - the ability to demonstrate finesse in hand movements.
3. Interpersonal Intelligence - the ability to interact socially with others.
4. Logical Intelligence - the ability to perform mathematics and think in an orderly manner.
5. Linguistic Intelligence - the ability to acquire and use language effectively.
6. Graphic Visual Intelligence - the ability to create mental images, process them and translate them from imagination to reality.
7. Spatial Visual Intelligence -the ability to manipulate objects within space and move objects around with precision.
8. Musical Intelligence - the ability to keep a beat, play instruments, sing, etc.
9. Intrapersonal Intelligence - the ability to self-reflect.
10. Naturalistic Intelligence - the ability to connect with the environment.
Gardner defines intelligence as "bio-psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture."
Steven Rudolph has paired these 10 Multiple Intelligences together with a complementary set of traits he has established (the 9 Multiple Natures) to create the MN Framework. This serves as the basis for the human alignment tools created by Multiple Natures International.
The intelligences can be likened to the outlets on water tanks; the wider the outlet the more the energy that can flow through them.
Gardner, Howard (1999), Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-02611-1.
Note: Rudolph has expanded Bodily Intelligences into two types, Gross Bodily Intelligence and Fine Bodily Intelligence, and also split Visual Intelligence into two types: Graphic Visual Intelligence and Spatial Visual Intelligence. He has also slightly modified Gardner's original terminology for sake of ease.